best concrete repair epoxy

The Spruce / Kevin Liang

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Repairing cracked concrete isn't too difficult of a DIY project as long as you have the right concrete crack filler. While concrete is a very durable building material—after all, there are concrete structures built by the ancient Romans that are still standing and even usable—it does tend to lớn develop cracks over time, as well as flake or peel (also known as spalling). While some minor cracks are merely cosmetically undesirable, extensive cracking or spalling of your concrete walkway, driveway, garage floor, foundation, or concrete walls can lead to lớn water seepage, lifted areas that are tripping hazards, or structural weakness. That's why it's always a good idea to lớn repair and fill any cracks in concrete that are more than vãn hairline fractures.

Deane Biermeier, carpenter and former contractor as well as a thành viên of The Spruce's trang chủ Improvement Review Board says, "Concrete crack fillers are one of those, 'You get what you pay for' items. Cheap crack fillers tend to lớn look good at the outset but don't offer many long-term benefits. Look for self-leveling compounds for horizontal surfaces and grouts for vertical ones. Use hydraulic cement compounds in foundation walls and other structural components where the concrete could come into frequent tương tác with water. "

To help with your next repair project, we evaluated concrete crack fillers based on type, effectiveness, ease of application, cure time, weather and moisture resistance, and overall value.

Sikaflex Pro Select Self-Leveling Sealant


What We Like

  • Self-leveling

  • Can be painted or stained

  • Flexible

  • Waterproof

What We Don't Like

  • Not for use on vertical surfaces or sloped surfaces

  • Can take up to lớn 5 days for full cure

If you need to lớn repair a concrete crack that's a minimum of 1/4-inch wide up to lớn a maximum of 1 1/2-inches wide and 1/2-inch deep, then our top recommendation is Sikaflex Pro Self-Leveling Sealant. This polyurethane sealant dries to lớn the touch in just one or two hours but can take three to lớn five days to lớn fully cure. You can use it on freshly poured concrete that has cured for at least 24 hours, and you can even use it on damp concrete as long as the rain or other source of water has been stopped for at least an hour. Once cured, it has excellent adhesion, but remains slightly flexible, making it ideal for use in cracks that are exposed to lớn weather extremes.

You'll need a caulk gun to lớn squeeze the thick substance into the crack; the 10.1-ounce tube fits most caulk guns. Once you've filled the crack, the sealant will self-level to lớn create an even surface, so sánh you won't need to lớn scrape or sand away a rounded or humped-up edge. And it's waterproof and resistant to lớn shrinking or cracking. It dries to lớn a light gray that matches the color of concrete, but you can paint or stain it once it's cured if you prefer another color. You can sand it as well, if necessary.

Note that this is only for sealing cracks on horizontal surfaces, such as garage floors, driveways or walkways, or patios. It is not for use on vertical surfaces, meaning you cannot use it for cracks in walls or stair risers, or for cracks on horizontal surfaces that are sloped. Like other self-leveling sealants, it is fairly runny at first, so sánh go slow and steady while applying it to lớn avoid overfilling the crack. If you have a lot of cracks to lớn fill, you can also buy this sealant in a 29-ounce tube.

Price at time of publish: $9

Size: 10.1 ounces | Cure Time: 3 to lớn 5 days | Application Method: Caulk gun

RadonSeal Concrete Foundation Crack Repair Kit


What We Like

  • Permanent, waterproof seal

  • Works on cracks up to lớn 1/2-inch wide

  • Comprehensive kit

What We Don't Like

  • Expensive

It's not inexpensive, but this comprehensive kit from RadonSeal lets you fix cracks in your home's foundation or basement walls that are up to lớn 1/2-inch thick; you would pay a lot more to lớn hire someone to lớn bởi it for you. Seal out moisture—even leaks—as well as dust, insects, mold spores, and harmful gases lượt thích radon using this kit that contains everything you need except for a standard caulking gun. Once cured, your repair will be permanent and waterproof, plus just flexible enough to lớn resist cracking, shrinking, or splitting.

While the process seems a bit complex, it's well within the range of the average DIYer. The company also has helpful videos demonstrating the entire process on their trang web, although the written instructions will likely be all you'll need. You will use the kit's contents to lớn clean the crack, insert the injection ports, mix the ingredients, and then inject the sealant. Once inside the crack, the polyurethane foam forcefully expands to lớn fill every bit of the crack. Within a couple of hours, the sealer is mix enough to lớn repel water and prevent leaks, and it is fully cured within 24 hours. The kit contains enough ingredients to lớn fill up to lớn 10 feet of cracks.

Price at time of publish: $154

Size: 10 feet | Cure Time: 24 hours | Application Method: Caulk gun

Rust-Oleum Concrete Patch & Repair


What We Like

  • Extremely durable

  • Good for surfaces with vehicle traffic

  • Cures very quickly

  • Can be painted

What We Don't Like

  • Requires mixing before use and is only good for up to lớn 30 minutes

  • Expensive

This 100 percent epoxy concrete repair patch is stronger than vãn concrete once it dries. It bonds completely to lớn the concrete and won't wear down, shrink, or crack over time. It's perfect for repairing tough cracks or holes up to lớn một nửa inch deep in concrete garage floors, foundations, driveways or walkways, walls, and stairs. It dries fast, too—if applied on a day when the weather is around 70 degrees and 50 percent humidity, it cures in just eight hours to lớn a concrete-gray color. After that, it's ready for you to lớn paint or sand it, if desired. Once dry, it's not affected by weather and is impervious to lớn vehicle traffic. While more expensive than vãn our other options, this is one of the most durable patch products you'll find.

Using the product is a little more complicated than vãn a ready-to-go patch, but the results are worth it. This is a two-part product that you'll need to lớn mix right before use. But don't worry, no chemistry degree is required: Simply follow the directions to lớn mix two parts of the base with one part of the activator until the consistency is similar to lớn putty. Then, use a trowel or putty knife to lớn fill in the damaged area within 30 minutes of mixing the product. If filling in a large crack or hole, you may need two applications, each no more than vãn 1/2-inch thick, but you'll need to lớn wait a couple of hours between applications, meaning that you'll need to lớn mix more product for the second layer. One 24-ounce box covers up to lớn 14 linear feet.

Price at time of publish: $40

Size: 24 ounces | Cure Time: 8 hours | Application Method: Trowel or putty knife

DAP 37584 Liquid Cement Crack Filler


What We Like

  • Easy to lớn use

  • Dries very quickly

  • Stands up to lớn vehicle traffic

What We Don't Like

  • Doesn't flow easily if it's cold

  • Only for horizontal surfaces

If you need to lớn fill cracks that are no more than vãn 1/2-inch thick, and you want a self-leveling product that easily flows right out of the squeeze bottle—no caulk gun or putty knife required—then you'll lượt thích this latex-based product from DAP. Shake it very well before use—it will flow even better if you mix the bottle in a bath of warm water for 10 minutes before using it—and then fill horizontal cracks on driveways, basement floors, concrete steps, walkways, and other flat surfaces. If properly applied, the crack filler is dry and ready for traffic in just 30 to lớn 45 minutes.

It dries to lớn a concrete gray color but can be painted once it's dry if you'd lượt thích. Because it self-levels, this isn't the right product for cracks in vertical surfaces, such as walls or stair risers; used in these situations, it will slump or run rẩy. Be careful when snipping off the tip of the squeeze bottle, however, as too big a hole will allow the sealer to lớn flow too quickly, and too small a hole will keep it from flowing smoothly. The 32-ounce bottle will cover roughly 90 linear feet.

Price at time of publish: $14

Size: 32 ounces | Cure Time: 30 minutes | Application Method: Squeeze bottle

Bluestar Flexible Concrete Crack Filler


What We Like

  • Tolerates temperature extremes without cracking or displacing

  • Easy to lớn apply

  • Paintable

What We Don't Like

  • Somewhat runny, so sánh can be messy

  • Not ideal for vertical cracks

Bluestar's Flexible Concrete Crack Filler comes in a squeeze bottle and is easy to lớn apply; just snip off the tip of the bottle and carefully squeeze the product into cracks up to lớn 1 inch in width. For deep cracks, you might need to lớn fill the gap in more than vãn one layer, letting the product cure for at least 24 hours between applications. It remains somewhat flexible even when dry, allowing it to lớn move with the concrete's expansion and contraction during weather changes. And once it's cured, the crack is sealed, meaning that it will resist further damage or cracking from moisture and other weather extremes, as well as damage from foot or vehicle traffic.

You can use this for cracks on driveways, walkways, garage floors, or other horizontal surfaces. Because it is somewhat runny, it's not ideal for use on vertical surfaces. It's fairly self-leveling, thanks to lớn its consistency, so sánh you won't need to lớn bởi a lot of sanding or smoothing as long as you don't apply too much. If the results aren't level enough, use a putty knife to lớn smooth the filler before it fully cures. It dries to lớn a gray color that matches concrete well, but you can paint it once it's dry if you'd lượt thích.

Price at time of publish: $17

Size: 16 ounces | Cure Time: 24 hours | Application Method: Squeeze bottle

Sikacryl Pro Select Ready-Mix Concrete Patch


If you have large cracks or areas of spalling—peeling or flaking of concrete—on concrete or masonry, then this easy-to-use acrylic-based patch makes it easy to lớn fix them. It's ready to lớn go; no need for mixing or stirring. Just apply with a trowel until you've filled the gap. Note that for cracks deeper than vãn 1/4 inch, you will need to lớn apply the product in multiple layers, each no more than vãn 1/4 inch, waiting for the full cure time of 24 hours between each layer. It dries to lớn a slightly textured finish that blends in very well with concrete or mortar between bricks. Once cured, it can be painted if desired.

While you can use this to lớn patch both vertical and horizontal cracks and holes in masonry and concrete both indoors and outside, it is not for use on areas that are driven on by vehicles, such as driveways or garage floors. It's ideal for fixing cracked concrete stairs, walls, sidewalks, masonry walls, and similar surfaces, though. It cleans up with water, as long as you act quickly before it sets, and it won't shrink or crack once dry. While it holds up very well to lớn normal weather conditions, it is not waterproof, however. A 1-quart container will cover up to lớn trăng tròn square feet and a 1-gallon container can cover up to lớn 80 square feet.

Price at time of publish: $13

Size: 1 quart | Cure Time: 24 hours | Application Method: Trowel or putty knife

DAP Concrete Siliconized Filler & Sealant


What We Like

  • Reasonable price

  • Adheres to lớn many construction materials

  • Waterproof, flexible seal

What We Don't Like

  • Long cure time

The silicone in this sealant dries to lớn a slightly flexible, waterproof seal that keeps out rain, ice, and humidity to lớn prevent moisture damage or crack expansion in concrete that's often exposed to lớn water. Note, however, that it is not for continuous submersed use, such as filling cracks in a swimming pool or at the bottom of a bird bath. You'll need a caulk gun to lớn apply it to lớn cracks up to lớn 1/2-inch wide in concrete floors, walls, foundations, walkways, and other concrete structures. Because it has excellent adhesion to lớn most other construction materials, including stucco, wood, mortar, brick, and stone, it's also a good choice for filling in small gaps between concrete flooring and nearby structures, such as stucco walls.

You can use this to lớn fill both vertical and horizontal cracks. Once dry, its watertight seal even resists stains and damage from gasoline, oil, grease, or salt, and it won't crack or bubble. It can be painted after a 2-hour drying time, but should be allowed to lớn cure for a full day before direct exposure to lớn water. It can take up to lớn two weeks for a full cure, however. After applying it, use a damp putty knife or trowel to lớn smooth over the surface of sealer for an even finish. The sealant dries to lớn a very light gray. It's a very inexpensive crack filler, as well.

Price at time of publish: $6

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Size: 10.1 ounces | Cure Time: Up to lớn two weeks | Application Method: Caulk gun

Latex-Ite Pli-Stix Driveway Crack & Joint Filler


What We Like

  • Creates a watertight, permanent seal

  • Ready to lớn drive on in just trăng tròn minutes

  • Good for asphalt as well as concrete

What We Don't Like

  • Only available in black

  • Requires torch or heat gun

  • Relatively expensive

This unique, contractor-grade product is basically a "rope" made of thermoplastic rubber that you pack into 1/4-inch to lớn 1/2-inch wide cracks in your asphalt or concrete driveway and then blast with a heat gun or propane torch. The Pli-Stix melts within the crack, creating a watertight seal that's self-leveling, permanent, and flexible enough to lớn slightly give with temperature-caused expansion and contraction of the concrete. It bonds very tightly to lớn the concrete, so sánh you can expect it to lớn last for years. That justifies its price, which is higher than vãn many other crack-repair products.

Before applying the product, be sure to lớn thoroughly clear any loose debris, dirt, or bits of concrete out of the crack, and only use the Pli-Stix when the ground is dry. You might need to lớn use a screwdriver or other object to lớn wedge it into the crack. If the crack is very thin, you can cut the filler to lớn fit as necessary. Once in place, apply direct heat from a propane torch or heat gun to lớn the Pli-Stix until it completely liquefies, which usually takes only trăng tròn to lớn 30 seconds. It sets very quickly; you can usually drive over it within trăng tròn minutes, as long as the weather isn't too humid. On the downside, it's only available in Đen, so sánh the repaired crack will show on gray concrete. One roll of the product can repair up to lớn 60 feet of cracks.

Price at time of publish: $28

Size: 60 feet | Cure Time: trăng tròn minutes | Application Method: Torch or heat gun

Loctite PL Self-Leveling Concrete Sealer


What We Like

  • Good for foot or vehicle traffic

  • Seals cracks up to lớn 1.5 inches wide

  • Paintable

What We Don't Like

  • Long cure time

  • Not for cracks on slopes or vertical surfaces

Self-leveling sealers apply thin enough to lớn spread out in the crack evenly, thus removing the need for you to lớn smooth the filler out yourself with a putty knife. That makes your job easier and faster. This polyurethane sealer from Loctite fills in cracks up to lớn 1 một nửa inches wide on any horizontal, flat surface, including driveways, garage floors, walkways, patios, and stoops. Like other self-leveling products, it should not be used on a sloped or vertical surface, as it will run rẩy or slump under those circumstances. It's ideal for driveways or other areas that receive a lot of vehicle or foot traffic, and remains just flexible enough once cured to lớn resist cracking or shrinking due to lớn temperature extremes. While weather-resistant, it is not waterproof.

You apply this sealer with a caulk gun. Be sure the crack is dry and không tính tiền from debris and dirt before filling it. If the crack is deep, you might need to lớn use two applications to lớn fill it, waiting at least 24 hours between applications. Once applied, the sealer begins to lớn mix within a few hours. However, it is not fully cured for up to lớn seven days, depending on the weather and the size of the filled crack. It dries to lớn a concrete gray color, but can be painted once fully cured if desired. It's available in either 10-ounce or 28-ounce tubes.

Price at time of publish: $17

Size: 18 ounces | Cure Time: 7 days | Application Method: Caulk gun

Sashco 16210 Slab Concrete Crack Repair Sealant


What We Like

  • Good for cracks with vehicle traffic

  • Very flexible

  • For cracks up to lớn 3 inches wide

What We Don't Like

  • Not self-leveling

  • Long cure time

Cracked concrete that's exposed to lớn extreme weather conditions can be difficult to lớn repair, as the concrete will slightly expand during high temperatures and slightly contract during cold weather. This tends to lớn crack or displace crack fillers that dry very hard. The solution for these areas is a crack repair product that remains just a bit flexible once dry, thus allowing the filler to lớn expand and contract along with the concrete to lớn improve its durability. And Slab definitely remains flexible; in fact, this water-based product can stretch up to lớn 300 percent of the crack's size without shrinking, cracking, pulling loose, or lifting. It even remains stable through freeze/thaw cycles.

You can use this to lớn fill cracks up to lớn 3 inches in width on horizontal surfaces, including those that receive vehicle traffic. While the sealant dries without slumping, it is not truly self-leveling, so sánh you might need to lớn bởi a bit of smoothing with a putty knife after applying it. It's fairly easy to lớn apply with a caulk gun, as long as you don't try and go too fast. While the sealant is dry to lớn the touch within a few hours, you should not walk or drive over the repaired crack for at least a full day. It can take up to lớn a week or more to lớn fully cure, though. Once cured, you can paint over the gray color if desired.

Price at time of publish: $10

Size: 10.5 ounces | Cure Time: 1 week | Application Method: Caulk gun

Bluestar Flexible Concrete Hairline Crack Filler


What We Like

  • Runny enough to lớn fill very thin cracks

  • Squeeze-bottle application

  • Seals cracks

What We Don't Like

  • Not self-leveling

  • Can be messy

For very thin cracks no more than vãn 1/8-inch wide, this flexible product from Bluestar is the answer. Squeeze it carefully into the crack; the thin spout of the squeeze bottle lets you get right in there, and the fairly thin consistency of the sealant allows it to lớn run rẩy down into the gap easily. It's not self-leveling, so sánh you might need to lớn smooth off the surface with a putty knife to lớn give the best-finished appearance. The filler seals the crack once dry, so sánh moisture can't continue to lớn enlarge it, and it's flexible enough to lớn give slightly with ground movement or expansion/contraction of the concrete to lớn resist splitting, lifting, or cracking.

The cure time is 24 hours in good weather, longer if it is very humid or cold. It should be applied to lớn dry concrete, and on horizontal cracks only. The thinness of this product makes it unsuitable for cracks on walls or other vertical surfaces, or for use on slopes where it's likely to lớn run rẩy. It can be used on driveways or garage floors with vehicle traffic after it's fully cured. You can also paint it if you don't lượt thích its gray color.

Price at time of publish: $13

Size: 8 ounces | Cure Time: 24 hours | Application Method: Squeeze bottle

Drylok Fast Plug Hydraulic Cement


What We Like

  • Applies even over actively leaking holes or cracks

  • Can be used on submerged cracks

  • Extremely durable once set

What We Don't Like

  • Must be mixed immediately before use

  • Not for very thin cracks

Not only does this hydraulic cement start to lớn cure in just three to lớn five minutes, but it also can seal even active leaks, or be used to lớn repair submerged cracks in swimming pools or birdbaths. You can use it to lớn patch cracks and holes in concrete, mortar, or masonry surfaces both horizontal and vertical. You bởi need to lớn work quickly, however, due to lớn the fast cure time. You'll also need to lớn mix this product yourself in a ratio of three parts Fast Plug to lớn one part water. Be sure to lớn mix it immediately before you plan to lớn use it, and don't mix more than vãn you will use within three minutes. Once mixed, work the product into cracks or holes with a trowel or putty knife. Smooth it over as you work for an even finish.

While the hydraulic cement will be dry enough to lớn hold back leaks within minutes, you'll need to lớn wait up to lớn an hour before walking on it, and at least a full day before driving over it. It's very hard and durable once it's cured. While it dries to lớn a concrete gray, you can paint over it with a waterproofing latex paint once it's fully mix. Note that Fast Plug is best for cracks and holes that are fairly large, not for hairline cracks.

Price at time of publish: $11

Size: 4 pounds | Cure Time: 3 to lớn 5 minutes | Application Method: Trowel or putty knife

Final Verdict

If you want an easy-to-use crack filler that self-levels, is very durable and weather-resistant, dries to lớn a waterproof finish, can be painted, and works to lớn fill cracks up to lớn 1.5 inches wide, then our top recommendation, Sika Sikaflex Pro Select Self-Leveling Sealant, is the product for you. But if you need to lớn patch a crack or hole that’s actively leaking water, or need to lớn fix a crack in a swimming pool or other submerged area, then we recommend Drylok Fast Plug Hydraulic Cement, which sets in only a few minutes.


Knowing the different types of products that can be used to lớn repair cracked concrete helps you narrow down your options to lớn the crack filler that’s best for your particular situation.

Concrete caulk or filler is best for cracks no wider than vãn một nửa inch. This thick material is injected into the crack with a caulk gun or by directly squeezing it out of the tube. You can use concrete caulk on both vertical or horizontal cracks. Our top pick is Sikaflex Pro Select Self-Leveling Sealant.

Self-leveling caulks flatten out as they dry, so sánh you don’t have to lớn smooth them out yourself. But these are best for cracks on the ground, not cracks in walls or other vertical surfaces. Loctite PL Self-Leveling Concrete Sealer is especially good for cracks that receive a lot of vehicle traffic.

Concrete sealer is similar to lớn concrete caulk, but is only for use on thin horizontal cracks, not on vertical cracks in walls. Concrete sealer both fills the crack and works to lớn prevent moisture from seeping into the concrete. Bluestar Flexible Concrete Crack Filler seals and fills cracks in driveways and other horizontal surfaces.

Epoxy sealers like Rust-Oleum Concrete Patch & Repair are waterproof products that are extremely strong and durable. These are good for cracks in foundation or basement walls, as well as horizontal cracks on concrete pavement or driveways. However, as epoxy sealers dry very quickly, they can be tricky for DIY use. Epoxy sealers are only for very thin cracks.

Quick-setting cement or cement patching compounds lượt thích Sikacryl Pro Select Ready-Mix Concrete Patch are best for large cracks up to lớn 1 inch wide. These products are available in premixed solutions as well as powders that you have to lớn mix yourself. 

Hydraulic cement is usually a powder that you mix yourself, but there are some brands with premixed products. Hydraulic cement is used to lớn fill cracks in foundations, fountains, swimming pools, or other areas where it’s imperative to lớn keep moisture out. We especially lượt thích Drylok Fast Plug Hydraulic Cement, which starts to lớn mix in minutes.

Cure Time

Concrete crack-filling products generally have both a mix time, which is how long it takes for the filler to lớn be dry to lớn the touch, and a cure time, which is how long it takes for the product to lớn be completely dry and able to lớn withstand traffic, either foot or motor vehicle. 

Most concrete crack fillers are mix within an hour or two, but can take several hours, or even a few days, before they are fully cured. You’ll usually find the cure time listed on the product packaging. Many factors influence the cure time, including the size of the crack, the air temperature, the humidity, the amount of water in the filler, and the amount of filler squeezed into the crack. If you are repairing a crack on a driveway or other area that received heavy traffic, never drive over the repaired crack until letting it cure for the full time frame recommended by the manufacturer. Latex-Ite Pli-Stix Driveway Crack & Joint Filler is ready for drive-over traffic in less than vãn half an hour.

Weather Resistance

Just about any concrete repair product has at least some resistance to lớn weather conditions, as it’s often weather itself that caused the crack to lớn begin with. Generally, any filler will resist moisture from rain or snow. However, if you live in an area with extreme winters or summers with very high or very low temperatures, or you live in an area with significant rainfall, then look for a flexible sealer lượt thích Sashco Slab Concrete Crack Repair Sealant. These include ingredients that can slightly expand or contract with temperature extremes, thus preventing further expansion of the repaired crack.

Crack Width

The width of the crack determines which type of repair product will work best.

  • As a general rule, hairline cracks should be filled with liquid fillers or thin caulks that can seep down into the crack. Bluestar Flexible Concrete Hairline Crack Filler is specially formulated for the thinnest cracks.
  • Thin cracks up to lớn 1/2-inch wide are best repaired with a concrete caulk or sealant.
  • Larger cracks, gouges, or holes in the concrete, or spalling, which is pitting or flaking of the concrete, are best filled with patching compounds or quick-setting cement.


  • How long does concrete crack filler last?

    There’s no definite answer to lớn the question of how long concrete crack filler lasts, as it depends greatly on the type of repair product used, the size of the crack, exposure to lớn weather and moisture, and the “activity” of the crack, meaning whether or not ground motion, settling of the concrete structure, or traffic continue to lớn encourage the crack to lớn enlarge. But as a rough guideline, your repair should last at least a year or two, and potentially up to lớn a decade or more.

  • What is the best product for concrete cracks?

    The best product for repairing concrete cracks depends on the size of the crack, the cracked area’s exposure to lớn weather extremes and moisture, and the cause of the crack. Generally, you should use a concrete caulk or filler for small cracks that are less than vãn 1/2-inch in width, and concrete patching compounds or quick-setting cement for larger cracks.

  • When should I Điện thoại tư vấn a professional to lớn fix concrete cracks?

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    Generally, you can repair a small, simple concrete crack yourself. However, some cracks Điện thoại tư vấn for a professional’s expertise, including very large cracks or holes, cracks caused by drainage issues, or cracks that compromise the integrity of a building’s foundation, floors, or walls. You’ll also need a professional to lớn tackle repairs to lớn concrete that has buckled or lifted due to lớn ground motion, frost heaving, or tree roots underneath the surface.

This article was researched and written by Michelle Ullman, who is a writer specializing in home page and garden products. She has been a commerce writer for The Spruce since 2020, covering a wide range of home page improvement products including power and hand tools, painting supplies, landscaping tools, and tool organizers. To choose the best concrete crack fillers for this article, she consulted dozens of customer and third-party reviews, as well as websites specializing in driveway repairs and concrete use. 

She evaluated concrete repair products based on type, effectiveness, cure time, versatility, durability, and overall value. She also received input from Deane Biermeier, carpenter and former contractor as well as a thành viên of The Spruce's trang chủ Improvement Review Board.